The Rise of Hindutva in Contemporary India and its Implications for Hindu-Muslim Relations


  • Dr Nasir Majeed Malik IIUI
  • Dr. Waleed Khan Institute of Arabic & Islamic Studies GC Women University Sialkot
  • Sana Maryam PhD Scholar Muslim Youth University Islamabad.


India, a constitutionally secular state, is nearly 80% Hindu, 14.2% Muslim and includes Christian  2-3%, Sikh less than 2%, Buddhist less than 1% and Jain less than 1% minorities. As Narendra Modi assumed his office in 2014 as an Indian prime minister, there has been abundant media reports, scholarly works which claim that the Muslim minority in India, mistreated, persecuted and discriminated against, giving an overall impression as if Muslims are alienated from the main social stream everywhere in India and the government and public at large is responsible for their miseries. The atrocities against minorities have increased, and the concept of 'Hindutva' has emerged as a frightening danger to the country's minorities. This research project has examined the evolution of Hindutva ideology which took place in Indian society and has considered the recent government of Narendra Modi as a staunch supporter of Hindutva. This post-Doctoral thesis examines the rise of Hindutva in contemporary India and its impact on Hindu-Muslim relations. Utilizing interdisciplinary methods, this study investigates the ideological roots and political ascendancy of Hindutva, tracing its evolution from early Hindu revivalist movements to its development into a dominant force in Indian politics.The research delves into the ideological foundations of key Hindu nationalist organizations like the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (RSS) and their role in shaping India's sociopolitical landscape. It analyzes how Hindutva has influenced electoral dynamics, policymaking, and societal attitudes, emphasizing the interplay between economic disparities, regional divides, and political strategies in fostering communal polarization.A significant focus is placed on understanding the socio-economic factors driving Hindutva's growth and its impact on Muslim communities. Through ethnographic studies, this research explores the challenges faced by Muslims, highlighting discrimination, marginalization, and gendered experiences within the broader context of Hindutva-driven societal shifts.The conclusion offers recommendations for policymakers and suggests future research directions.




How to Cite

Dr Nasir Majeed Malik, Dr. Waleed Khan, and Sana Maryam. 2023. “The Rise of Hindutva in Contemporary India and Its Implications for Hindu-Muslim Relations”. AL-ĪQĀẒ (الإيقاظ) 3 (04):27-46.



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